GeoGebra


Predefined Functions and Operators

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To create numbers, coordinates, or equations using the Input Bar you may also use the following pre-defined functions and operations. Logic operators and functions are listed in article about Boolean values.

Note: The predefined functions need to be entered using parentheses. You must not put a space between the function name and the parentheses.


Operation / Function Input
ℯ (Euler's number) Alt + e
ί (Imaginary unit) Alt + i
π Alt + p or pi
° (Degree symbol) Alt + o
Addition +
Subtraction -
Multiplication * or Space key
Scalar product * or Space key
Vector product(see Points and Vectors)
Division /
Exponentiation ^ or superscript (x^2 or x2)
Factorial !
Parentheses ( )
x-coordinate x( )
y-coordinate y( )
Argument arg( )
Conjugate conjugate( )
Absolute value abs( )
Sign sgn( ) or sign()
Square root sqrt( )
Cubic root cbrt( )
Random number between 0 and 1 random( )
Exponential function exp( ) or ℯx
Logarithm (natural, to base e) ln( ) or log( )
Logarithm to base 2 ld( )
Logarithm to base 10 lg( )
Logarithm of x to base b log(b, x )
Cosine cos( )
Sine sin( )
Tangent tan( )
Secant sec()
Cosecant cosec()
Cotangent cot()
Arc cosine acos( ) or arccos( )
Arc sine asin( ) or arcsin( )
Arc tangent (returns answer between -π/2 and π/2) atan( ) or arctan( )
Arc tangent (returns answer between -π and π) atan2(y, x)
Hyperbolic cosine cosh( )
Hyperbolic sine sinh( )
Hyperbolic tangent tanh( )
Hyperbolic secant sech( )
Hyperbolic cosecant cosech( )
Hyperbolic cotangent coth( )
Antihyperbolic cosine acosh( ) or arccosh( )
Antihyperbolic sine asinh( ) or arcsinh( )
Antihyperbolic tangent atanh( ) or arctanh( )
Greatest integer less than or equal floor( )
Least integer greater than or equal ceil( )
Round round( )
Beta function Β(a, b) beta(a, b)
Incomplete beta function Β(x;a, b) beta(a, b, x)
Incomplete regularized beta function I(x; a, b) betaRegularized(a, b, x)
Gamma function Γ(x) gamma( x)
(Lower) incomplete gamma function γ(a, x) gamma(a, x)
(Lower) incomplete regularized gamma function P(a,x) = γ(a, x) / Γ(a) gammaRegularized(a, x)
Gaussian Error Function erf(x)
Real real( )
Imaginary imaginary( )
Digamma function psi(x)
The Polygamma function is the (m+1)th derivative of the natural logarithm of the Gamma function, gamma(x) (m=0,1) polygamma(m, x)
The Sine Integral function sinIntegral(x)
The Cosine Integral function cosIntegral(x)
The Exponential Integral function expIntegral(x)
The Reimann-Zeta function ζ(x) zeta(x)
Example:
Conjugate(17 + 3 * ί) gives -3 ί + 17, the conjugated complex number of 17 + 3 ί.
See Complex Numbers for details.